Refutation of “Of Aisha’s age at marriage” published by DAWN (Pakistan)

Clarification on the age of ‘A’ishah at the time of marriage

By Mawlana Abdul Azīm bin Abdur Rahman
Foreword by Mufti Ebrahim Desai: A person – Nilofar Ahmed – has published an article in the Dawn newspaper claiming Hadhrat ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her)’s age was at least eighteen during marriage.  This is substantiated with statements of muhaddithīn, Ayāt, and historical facts.

This research rebuts the claim and points out the inaccuracies and academic dishonesty in the article.  This is a research by Mawlāna Abdul Azīm, who is also a student in Takhassus Fil-Hadīth at the Darul Iftaa [Mahmudiyyah, Durban].  Read the article of the Dawn newspaper first [click here to read].  You will observe how a simple minded person can get easily convinced with the article.

The Rebuttal

Due to the limitations of the mind, there are certain issues that are not easily comprehended by everyone. Generally there are two approaches in addressing such issues. The first is an apologetic one. In this, one endeavours to hide a reality in order to earn the confidence and pleasure of others. Authentic facts are denied and replaced by apparently appealing information with the fear that the masses, especially non-Muslims will have a negative understanding of Islam if the factual situation is presented.

The second approach is to present the factual situation of the matter. The feelings and sentiments of people are not considered. It is done with the firm belief that Allāh will defend and preserve His dīn (religion). While the intention in the first approach is noble, it is dangerous. The consequences of twisting information to please people are too ghastly to consider. When research uncovers the truth, Islam will be blemished contrary to ones hope of presenting a noble picture of Islam. It is also academic dishonesty and against the spirit of honesty and truthfulness which are the hall marks of Islam.

The age of Hadhrat ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) during her marriage with the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is often highlighted and negatively presented in the context of child marriage. In an attempt to avoid the accusation of child marriage in Islam, some people have adopted an apologetic approach and began distorting the factual situation of Hadhrat ‘A’isha’s (may Allah be pleased with her) age during marriage. This approach is dangerous and is based on a wrong premise. We have to be bold to claim that child marriage is not prohibited in Islam. However, there are rules that govern the issue to safeguard the interest of the child.

This article is a rebuttal of an essay written by Nilofar Ahmed that was produced in the Dawn newspaper on 17/02/2012. The essay is based on the following incorrect premises:

  • Prohibition of child marriage
  • Historical facts must be correlated with authentic narrations

The writer claims that the misinformation of ‘A’isha’s (may Allah be pleased with her) age at the time of her marriage being six led to the wrong view that child marriage has sanction of Islam. The second premise is that authentic narrations must correlate with historical facts. Both premises are incorrect. Child marriage is permissible. There is no difference of opinion on this from at least the four main schools of thought, Hanafī, Shafi’ī, Mālikī, and Hanbalī. Yes, there are rules that govern child marriage to preserve and protect the interest of the child.

Furthermore, historical facts are not accurate. They cannot be a measure to determine the authenticity of ahādīth, especially if the ahādīth themselves are clearly authentic. The guiding measure should be the ahādīth and not historical factors. Historical factors are subservient and subordinate to authentic ahādīth. This is a basic rule. No reliable scholar would ignore such basics. This brings to question the qualifications of the writer of the article in reference. Remember the golden advice: Be careful from who you take your dīn.

The proof for Hadhrat ‘A’isha’s (may Allah be pleased with her)age during marriage is in Sahīh al-Bukhārī and Sahīh Muslim. Consider the following a hādīth:

حدثنا محمد بن يوسف، حدثنا سفيان، عن هشام، عن أبيه، عن عائشة رضي الله عنها:أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم تزوجها وهي بنتست سنين، وأدخلت عليه وهي بنت تسع، ومكثت عنده تسعا (صحيح البخاري, ج 10، ص 466-467، دار البشائر الاسلامية)

“‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) reports that Allah’s Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) married her while she was six years old. She was sent to stay with Allah’s Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) when she was nine and she lived with Allah’s Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) for nine years.” (Sahīh al-Bukhārī)

وحدثنا يحيى بن يحيى، أخبرنا أبو معاوية، عن هشام بن عروة، ح وحدثنا ابن نمير، واللفظ له، حدثنا عبدة هو ابن سليمان، عن هشام، عن أبيه، عن عائشة، قالت: «تزوجني النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وأنا بنت ست سنين، وبنى بي وأنا بنت تسع سنين (صحيح مسلم، ج 2، ص 1039، دار إحياء التراث العربي – بيروت)

“‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) says, “The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) married me when I was six years old, and he started living with me when I was nine years old.” (Sahīh Muslim)

The Ummah has accepted the narrations that appear in Sahīh al-Bukhāri and Sahīh Muslim as authentic. ‘Allāmah Hāfidh bin Hajar al-Asqalāni (may Allah have mercy on him) states in Sharh al-Nukhbah that the ‘ulamā are unanimous in accepting Sahīh al-Bukhārī and Sahīh Muslim[1]. ‘Allāmah Sakhāwī states in Fath al-Mughīth that Sahīh al-Bukhārī and Sahīh Muslim are the most authentic books of Hadīth. [2]

The writer of the article objects on the ahādīth of Sahīh al-Bukhārī and Sahīh Muslimsaying that there is weakness in one of the narrators, namely Hishām bin Urwah (may Allah have mercy on him). The writer further states, There is only one hadith by Hisham which suggests the age of Hazrat Aisha as being nine when she came to live with her husband.”

The writer incorrectly claims Hafidh Dhahabī (may Allah have mercy on him) has spoken about Hisham’s loss of memory in his later period. Hereunder are the actual wordings of ‘Allāmah Dhahabī (may Allah have mercy on him):

هشام بن عروة [ع] ، أحد الاعلام.

حجة إمام، لكن في الكبر تناقص حفظه، ولم يختلط أبدا، ولا عبرة بما قاله أبو الحسن بن القطان من أنه وسهيل بن أبي صالح اختلطا، وتغيرا.

نعم الرجل تغير قليلا ولم يبق حفظه كهو في حال الشبيبة، فنسى بعض محفوظه أو وهم، فكان ماذا! أهو معصوم من النسيان!

ولما قدم العراق في آخر عمره حدث بجملة كثيرة من العلم، في غضون ذلك يسير أحاديث لم يجودها، ومثل هذا يقع لمالك ولشعبة ولوكيع ولكبار الثقات، فدع عنك الخبط وذر خلط الائمة الاثبات بالضعفاء والمخلطين، فهشام شيخ الإسلام (مبزان الاعتدال)

“Hishām bin Urwah is one of the great luminaries, an authority and a leader. When he aged, his memory slightly decreased however he never became a mukhtalit (one who lost memory and errs in hadīth). There is no consideration for what some people have said regarding Hishām that he became a mukhtalit.

How great of a person was Hishām! His memory only weakened slightly and did not remain as it was in his youth. Hence he did forget and err on certain occasions. So what? Is he not human that he is protected from forgetfulness!

When he arrived in Irāq towards the end of his life, he narrated many Ahādīth. Amongst the many Ahādīth narrated, only a few were not said perfectly. But this was also the situation with the likes of Imām Mālik, Imām Shu’bah, Wakī’, and other great giants of Islām. Therefore, leave your incorrect uproar! Don’t mix up the strong, reliable narrators with the weak ones because Hishām is Shaykh al-Islām.” (Mīzān al-I’tidāl)

From the above quotations, the writer’s distortion of facts is clear. Such an attitude disqualifies one from academic merit. The words of ‘Allāmah Dhahabī (may Allah have mercy on him) were stated in support of Hishām bin Urwah (may Allah have mercy on him) and the writer created an image that ‘Allāmah Dhahabī (may Allah have mercy on him) does not accept Hishām’s narrations. Furthermore, Hafidh bin Hajar says in the introduction of his great commentary to Sahīh al-Bukhārī that all the experts of hadīth consider Hishām’s ahādīth to be authoritative and sufficient to be used as evidence. [3] Also, Imām al-Bukhārī and Imām Muslim considered Hishām to be very strong. That is why they included his narrations in their books of Hadīth.

Nevertheless, for argument’s sake, even if we do consider Hishām’s narrations to be weak, there are other narrations without Hishām in their chains that prove ‘Aisha’s (may Allah be pleased with her) age to be six at the time of marriage and nine at the time she started to reside with the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Imām Muslim narrates the following hadīth in which Hishām is not in the chain:

حدثنا يحيى بن يحيى، وإسحاق بن إبراهيم، وأبو بكر بن أبي شيبة، وأبو كريب، قال يحيى، وإسحاق: أخبرنا، وقال الآخران: حدثنا أبو معاوية، عن الأعمش، عن إبراهيم، عن الأسود، عن عائشة، قالت: «تزوجها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهي بنت ست، وبنى بهاوهي بنت تسع، ومات عنها وهي بنت ثمان عشرة (صحيح مسلم، ج 2، ص 1039، دار إحياء التراث العربي – بيروت)

“‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) reports that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) married her when she was six years old, he started living with her when she was nine years old, and he passed away when she was eighteen years old.” (Sahīh Muslim)

In Sunan al-Nasaī, a narration with a similar meaning is mentioned without Hishām in the chain. The hadīth is mentioned with the chain:

أَخْبَرَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ سَعْدِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ بْنِ أَبِي مَرْيَمَ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا عَمِّي، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ أَيُّوبَ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنِي عُمَارَةُ بْنُ غَزِيَّةَ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ: «تَزَوَّجَنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَهِيَ بِنْتُ سِتِّ سِنِينَ، وَبَنَى بِهَاوَهِيَ بِنْتُ تِسْعٍ (سنن النسائ، ج 6، ص 131، مكتب المطبوعات الإسلامية – حلب)

“‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) relates that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) married me while she was a six years old girl and he lived with her when she was nine years old.” (Sunan al-Nasaī)

Also if we look at the date of ‘A’isha’s (may Allah be pleased with her) demise and her age when she passed away, it becomes clear that her age at the time of her marriage with the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was indeed six. In Mawāhib al-Laduniyyah, ‘Allāmah Qastalānī (may Allah have mercy on him) mentions that ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) passed away fifty seven years after the migration and at that time she was sixty six years old. [4] ‘Allāmah Qastalāni also mentions that she was married to Allah’s Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) three years prior to the migration. [5] When all of these facts are put together, we identify that ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her)’s age at the time of her marriage was six.

A second objection presented by the writer is that the Qur’ān sets puberty to be the minimum age of marriage. To back up her claim, the writer brings Ayah number six of Surah al-Nisā. Hereunder is the Ayah:

وَابْتَلُوا الْيَتَامَى حَتَّى إِذَا بَلَغُوا النِّكَاحَ (سورة النساء، رقم الاية 6)

“And test the orphans until they reach a marriageable age.” (Surah al-Nisā)

The writer uses a general Ayah to support a specific claim. It is similar to one claiming wine is permissible and supports that with the permissibility of drinking water! The intent of this Ayah is to explain that children, well before they reach puberty should be tested through small assignments of buying and selling in order to determine their ability to conduct themselves in transactions on their own. This process of practical experimentation should continue till puberty. This is the time of special assessment. Now it should be determined if they have become smart and self-reliant in their affairs. Once this is sensed as “dependable”, it is time to hand over their property to them.

This is a clear misunderstanding by Ibn Ishāq (may Allah have mercy on him) especially when it contradicts authentic narrations and other books of sīrah. And Ibn Ishāq (may Allah have mercy on him) did not provide a chain of hadīth to support his claim.

Another objection by the writer is that in Musnad Ahmad, Khawla (may Allah be pleased with her) uses the word bikrun to refer to ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her). The writer further claims that the word bikrun which means virgin is only used for unmarried girls who have passed the age of puberty.

One answer to the objection is that bikrun can be used for girls who have not reached puberty also. Lisān al-Arab, a famous dictionary on the Arabic language, has the following meaning for bikrun:

(البكر: الجارية اللتي لم تفتض(لسان العرب)

“A female who has not been deflowered.” (Lisān al-Arab)

Mu’jam Lughat al-Fuqahā, a dictionary on words used by the jurists, defines bikrun as:

الفتاة العذراء التي لم تزل بكارتها بوطء (معجم لغة الفقهاء)

“One who has not lost her virginity through intercourse.” (Mu’jam Lughat al-Fuqahā)

From the above-mentioned definitions, it is obvious that the word bikrun is not confined to a mature lady rather includes any female who is virgin whether she has reached puberty or not.

A second and more obvious answer to the objection is that in the same hadīth, ‘A’isha’s (may Allah be pleased with her) age is mentioned to be six.[9] The writer only objected to the word bikrun but failed to mention that later on in the same hadīth, it is clearly stated that ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) was six. This clearly indicates that Sahābah also used the word bikrun for any virgin female, regardless of whether she reached puberty or not. Hereunder are the words of this Hadīth:

فَزَوَّجَهَا إِيَّاهُ وَعَائِشَةُ يَوْمَئِذٍ بِنْتُ سِتِّ سِنِينَ (مسند احمد)

“Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) married ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) off to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) while she was only six years of age.” (Musnad Ahmad)

The writer further objects stating, Some scholars think that Hazrat Aisha was married off so early because in Arabia girls mature at an early age. But this was not a common custom of the Arabs at that time. According to Allama Kandhulvi, there is no such case on record either before or after Islam. Neither has this ever been promoted as a Sunnah of the Prophet. The Prophet married off his daughters Fatima at 21 and Ruquiyya at 23. Besides, Hazrat Abu Bakr, Aisha’s father, married off his eldest daughter Asma at the age of 26.”

This is another baseless and non-academic opinion. It is quite clear from narrations that some marriages at a young age took place in the era of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), the Sahābah (may Allah be pleased with them), and those Muslims that came soon thereafter. For example, Hāfidh bin Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) quotes in his al-Isābah that Allah’s Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) got Salmah bin Ibī Salmah (may Allah be pleased with him) married to Umāmah bint Hamzah (may Allah be pleased with her) while none of them had reached puberty.[10] Also consider the following narration from Sahīh al-Bukhārī:

وقال الحسن بن صالح: «أدركت جارة لنا جدة، بنت إحدى وعشرين سنة (صحيح البخاري، ج 5، ص 562، دار البشائر الاسلامية)

“Hasan bin Sālih (may Allah have mercy on him) said: I came to know of my neighbour who became a grandmother at the age of twenty one.” (Sahīh al-Bukhārī)

This indicates that the woman must have been married when she was nine, gave birth when she was ten, and the same situation took place with her daughter.

The writer’s claim about the age of Hadhrat Fātimah and Hadhrat Ruqayyah (may Allah be pleased with them) at the time of marriage is also inaccurate. Allah’s Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) married Hadhrat Khadījah (may Allah be pleased with her) at the age of twenty-five. His first daughter born from the marriage was Zainab (may Allah be pleased with her).[11] According to most of the ‘ulamā, Ruqayyah (may Allah be pleased with her) is the second daughter of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). [12] And in al-Isābah, Hāfidh bin Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) narrates on the authority of Ibn Sa’d (may Allah have mercy on him) that Utbah bin Abī Lahab married Ruqayyah (may Allah be pleased with her) before the nubuwwah (prophethood). [13] The Messenger of Allah’s (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) age was forty at the time ofnubuwwah. Hence, it is clear that Ruqayyah (may Allah be pleased with her) was thirteen years old or younger at the time of her marriage and not twenty three years.

After the nubuwwah of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), Abū Lahab ordered his son Utbah bin Abī Lahab to divorce Ruqayyah (may Allah be pleased with her). Thereafter, ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with him) married Ruqayyah (may Allah be pleased with her).

Even Ruqayyah’s (may Allah be pleased with her) marriage with ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with him) took place well before she was twenty three years of age. ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with him) and Ruqayyah (may Allah be pleased with her) migrated together to Ethiopia in the fifth year after nubuwwah. kunyah.” So The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “Keep yourkunyah according to your son’s name (meaning nephew’s name) Abdullāh. Hence, herkunyah became Umm Abdillāh.” (Sunan Abī Dāwūd)ِ

This proves that the kunyah was given to ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) after she started to reside with Rasūllullāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Hence, she was at least nine years old if not older when she was given this kunyahand not six years old as the writer has suggested.

Furthermore, the writer did not provide any reference for the adoption of Abdullāh bin Zubair (may Allah be pleased with him). The mere fact that ‘A’isha’s (may Allah be pleased with her) kunyah was attributed to his name does not necessitate that she had adopted him. Also, the writer suggested that the kunyah was given to ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) because she gave up on having a child. However, from the hadīth of Sunan Abī Dāwūd, it is clear that the reason why ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) was given the kunyah was because she expressed her desire to have a kunyah, as the other wives of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) had one.

Making another objection, the author writes, Hazrat Aisha’s nephew Urwah once remarked that he was not surprised about her amazing knowledge of Islamic law, poetry and history because she was the wife of the Prophet and the daughter of Abu Bakr. If she was eight when her father migrated, when did she learn poetry and history from him?”

Again there is no reference whether this saying of Urwah (may Allah be pleased with him) is authentic or not. However, even if we accept this to really be Urwah’s statement, it is normal for young children to learn very quickly. Even these days we see small children learning very complicated information. In fact, so many children before the age of eight memorize the entire Qur’ān. And it is well known that children in the past had memories far greater than the memories of children in today’s times.

And even if Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) migrated to Medinah when ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) was only eight, she also migrated to Medinah. Just because she was staying with Allah’s Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) in Medinah does not necessitate that she stopped learning from her father.

In the final objection, the author writes, “There is consensus that Hazrat Aisha was 10 years younger than her elder sister Asma, whose age at the time of the hijrah, or migration to Madina, was about 28. It can be concluded that Hazrat Aisha was about 18 years old at migration.”

The writer’s claim of consensus here is incorrect and the writer does not even provide reference for the claim. In the book Usd al-Ghābah, ‘Allāmah Jazrī (may Allah have mercy on him) quotes Abū Na’īm saying that Asmā (may Allah be pleased with her) was born twenty seven years prior to migration. And in al-Isābah, Hāfidh bin al-Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) says that ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) was born four or five years after the nubuwwah of Allah’s Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). This proves that Asmā (may Allah be pleased with her) was eighteen or nineteen years older than ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) and not ten years older as was claimed by the writer. Hence ‘A’isha’s (may Allah be pleased with her) age at the time of migration was eight or nine years of age and not eighteen.

In conclusion, for information to be valid and authentic, it must be passed down from generation to generation through a valid chain of narrators. Hence, there is an authentic chain in Sahīh al-Bukhārī and other books of hadīth that prove ‘A’isha’s (may Allah be pleased with her) age to be six at the time of marriage. So any claim made against this through certain historical arguments holds no weight, especially when it is not supported by an authentic chain.

Allāh will preserve His dīn and the respect of our beloved Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) with the fact that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) married our mother Hadhrat ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) at the age of six and started living with her when she was nine years old. Let us preserve the facts and let Allāh preserve His dīn.[19]


[1]  لا اتفاق العلماء بعدهما علي تلقي كتابيهما باالقبول (شرح النخبة، ص 62،دار البصائر)

[2]  وباالجملة فكتاباهما اصح كتب الحديث (فتح المغيث، ج 1، ص 53، مكتبة دار المنهاج)

[3]  وقد احتج بهشام جميع الائمة (هدي الساري، ص 598، دار الحديث)

[4]  وماتت باالمدينة سنة سبع وخمسين. وقال الواقدي: ليلة الثلثاء لسبع عشرة خلت من رمضان سنة ثمان وخمسين, وهي ابنة ست وستين سنة (المواهب اللدنية, ج 1, ص 497، المكتبة التوفيقية)

[5]  وتزوجها بمكة في شوال سنة عشر من النبوة قبل الهجرة بثلاث سنين (المواهب اللدنية, ج 1, ص 495، المكتبة التوفيقية)

[6] Ma’ariful Qur’an, Vol. 2, Page 322, Maktaba-e-Darul-‘Uloom

[7]  وبلوغ النكاح. أن يحتلم لأنه يصلح للنكاح عنده، ولطلب ما هو مقصود به وهو التوالد والتناسل (الكشاف، ج 1، ص 473، دار الكتاب العربي – بيروت)

[8]  الصغر: اما الصغر فقال الجمهور منهم أئمة المذاهب الاربعة، بل ادعي ابن المنذر الاجماع علي جواز تزويج الصغيرة من كفء (الفقه الاسلامي وادلته، ج 7، ص 183، دار الفكر)

[9]  حدثنا محمد بن بشر، قال: حدثنا محمد بن عمرو، قال: حدثنا أبو سلمة، ويحيى، قالا: لما هلكت خديجة، جاءت خولة بنت حكيم امرأة عثمان بن مظعون، قالت: يا رسول الله ألا تزوج؟ قال: ” من؟ ” قالت: إن شئت بكرا، وإن شئت ثيبا؟ قال: ” فمن البكر؟ ” قالت: ابنة أحب خلق الله عز وجل إليك عائشة بنت أبي بكر، قال: ” ومن الثيب؟ ” قالت: سودة بنت زمعة، آمنت (3) بك، واتبعتك على ما تقول “، قال: ” فاذهبي فاذكريهما علي “، فدخلت بيت أبي بكر، فقالت: يا أم رومان ماذا أدخل الله عز وجل عليكم من الخيروالبركة؟ قالت: وما ذاك؟ قالت: أرسلني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أخطب عليه عائشة، قالت: انتظري أبا بكر حتى يأتي، فجاء أبو بكر، فقالت: يا أبا بكر ماذا أدخل الله عز وجل عليكم من الخير والبركة؟ قال: وما ذاك؟ قالت: أرسلني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أخطب عليه عائشة، قال: وهل تصلح له؟ إنما هي ابنة أخيه، فرجعت إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فذكرت ذلك له (1) ، قال: ” ارجعي إليه فقولي له: ” أنا أخوك، وأنت أخي في الإسلام، وابنتك تصلح لي “، فرجعت فذكرت ذلك له، قال: انتظري وخرج، قالت أم رومان: إن مطعم بن عدي قد كان ذكرها على ابنه، فوالله ما وعد وعدا قط، فأخلفه لأبي بكر، فدخل أبو بكر على مطعم بن عدي وعنده امرأته أم الفتى، فقالت يا ابن أبي قحافة لعلك مصبئ (2) صاحبنا مدخله في دينك الذي أنت عليه، إن تزوج إليك، قال أبو بكر للمطعم بن عدي: أقول هذه تقول، قال: إنها تقول ذلك، فخرج من عنده، وقد أذهب الله عز وجل ما كان في نفسه من عدته التي وعده فرجع، فقال لخولة: ادعي لي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فدعته فزوجها إياه وعائشة يومئذ بنت ست سنين، ثم خرجت فدخلت على سودة بنت زمعة، فقالت: ماذا أدخل الله عز وجل عليك من الخير والبركة؟ قالت: ما ذاك؟ قالت: أرسلني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أخطبك عليه، قالت: وددت ادخلي إلى أبي فاذكري ذاك له، وكان شيخا كبيرا، قد أدركته (3) السن، قد تخلف عن الحج، فدخلت عليه، فحيته (4) بتحية  الجاهلية، فقال: من هذه؟ فقالت: خولة بنت حكيم، قال: فما شأنك؟ قالت: أرسلني محمد بن عبد الله أخطب عليه سودة، قال: كفء (1) كريم، ماذا تقول صاحبتك؟ قالت: تحب ذاك، قال: ادعها لي فدعتها، فقال (2) : أي بنية إن هذه تزعم أن محمد بن عبد الله بن عبد المطلب قد أرسل يخطبك، وهو كفء (3) كريم، أتحبين أن أزوجك به، قالت: نعم، قال (4) : ادعيه لي، فجاء رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إليه فزوجها إياه، فجاءها أخوها عبد بن زمعة من الحج، فجعل يحثي على (5) رأسه التراب، فقال بعد أن أسلم: لعمرك (6) إني لسفيه يوم أحثي في رأسي التراب أن تزوج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم سودة بنت زمعة، قالت عائشة: فقدمنا المدينة فنزلنا في بني الحارث من (7) الخزرج في السنح، قالت: فجاء رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فدخل بيتنا واجتمع إليه رجال من الأنصار، ونساء فجاءت بي (8) أمي وإني لفي (1) أرجوحة بين عذقين ترجح بي، فأنزلتني من الأرجوحة، ولي جميمة ففرقتها، ومسحت وجهي بشيء من ماء، ثم أقبلت تقودني حتى وقفت بي عند الباب، وإني لأنهج حتى سكن من نفسي، ثم دخلت بي فإذا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم جالس على سرير في بيتنا، وعنده رجال ونساء من الأنصار، فأجلستني (2) في حجره، ثم قالت: هؤلاء أهلك فبارك الله لك فيهم، وبارك لهم فيك، فوثب الرجال والنساء، فخرجوا وبنى بي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في بيتنا، ما نحرت علي جزور، ولا ذبحت علي شاة، حتى أرسل إلينا سعد بن عبادة بجفنة كان يرسل بها إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، إذا دار إلى نسائه وأنا يومئذ بنت تسع سنين (مسند احمد, ج 42، ص 501-504،مؤسسة الرسالة)

[10]  وقال ابن إسحاق: حدثني من لا أتهم عن عبد اللَّه بن شداد، قال: كان الّذي زوّج أم سلمة من النّبي صلّى اللَّه عليه وسلم سلمة بن أبي سلمة ابنها فزوّجه النبيّ صلّى اللَّه عليه وسلم أمامة بنت حمزة، وهما صبيّان صغيران، فلم يجتمعا حتى ماتا، فقال النبيّ صلّى اللَّه عليه وسلم: هل جزيت سلمة! (الاصابة، ج 1، ص 752، دار المعرفة)

[11]  قال أبو عمر: لا أعرف خلافا أنّ زينب أكبر بنات النبي صلّى اللَّه عليه وسلّم (الاصابة، ج 4، ص 2506، دار المعرفة)

[12]  واختلف في رقية وفاطمة وأم كلثوم، والأكثر أنهنّ على هذا الترتيب (الاصابة، ج 4، ص 2506-2507، دار المعرفة)

[13]  وقال ابن سعد: بايعت رسول اللَّه صلّى اللَّه عليه وسلّم هي وأخواتها، وتزوجها عتبة بن أبي لهب قبل النبوة، فلما بعث قال أبو لهب: رأسي من رأسك حرام إن لم تطلق ابنته (الاصابة، ج 4، ص2507، دار المعرفة)

[14]  الموسوعة الميسرة في التاريخ الاسلامي، ج 1، ص 17، مؤسسة اقرأ

[15]  واختلف في سنة مولدها، فروى الواقديّ، عن طريق أبي جعفر الباقر، قال: قال العبّاس: ولدت فاطمة والكعبة تبنى، والنّبيّ صلّى اللَّه عليه وآله وسلّم ابن خمس وثلاثين سنة، وبهذا جزم المدائنيّ.

ونقل أبو عمر عن عبيد اللَّه بن محمد بن سليمان بن جعفر الهاشمي- أنها ولدت سنة إحدى وأربعين من مولد النّبيّ صلّى اللَّه عليه وآله وسلّم. وكان مولدها قبل البعثة بقليل نحو سنة أو أكثر (الاصابة، ج 4، ص2596، دار المعرفة)

[16]  ومن طريق عمر بن عليّ، قال: تزوّج عليّ فاطمة في رجب سنة مقدمهم المدينة، وبنى بها مرجعه من بدر، ولها يومئذ ثمان عشرة سنة. (الاصابة، ج 4، ص2597، دار المعرفة)

[17] وتزوّجها عليّ أوائل المحرم سنة اثنتين بعد عائشة بأربعة أشهر، وقيل غير ذلك. وانقطع نسل رسول اللَّه صلّى اللَّه عليه وآله وسلّم إلا من فاطمة. (الاصابة، ج 4، ص2596، دار المعرفة)

[18]  (فَلم يجزه) أَي: فَلم يمضه وَلم يَأْذَن لَهُ فِي الْقِتَال (عمدة القاري، ج 17، ص 177، دار إحياء التراث العربي)

[19]See the following article, The Young Marriage of Ayesha R.A., click here to access.

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